The Nattering Nabobs of Nibbāna

Footprint of the Buddha. 1st century, Gandhara...

In the United States today, we have more than our share of the nattering nabobs of negativism. They have formed their own 4 H Clubs – the hopeless, hysterical hypochondriacs of history. – Spiro T. Agnew, 1970

I’ve noticed something interesting about the Secular Buddhist movement. Many Secular Buddhist practitioners don’t seem to be comfortable with the idea of Nibbāna. Fascinating, but I find this makes me very sad. It seems in their attempt to make Buddhism more palatable to themselves some Secular Buddhist are willing to throw out the most extraordinary and life changing event that the Buddha has to offer to us – the experience of Nibbāna and for some, the complete ending of suffering and stress.

This isn’t surprising, really. Those of us that have grown up in mainstream U.S. society pride ourselves in a “realistic,” “hard-nosed,”  “down to earth” attitude. You can’t build a continent spanning railroad by reading tarot cards nor can you decide which mountain pass to cross by reading tea leaves. But this attitude has two downsides, both of which are present in a conversation I recently had with another Western Buddhist. I’ve edited our conversation to make it easier to read and to remove names. Emphasis is mine:

Them: [1] I for one can’t accept anything that is based on mystic beliefs…the Buddha said not to believe anybody, including himself, and to be a light onto yourself. If I can’t verify an experience for myself it really holds no value to me. My religion is Kindness and my faith is forgiveness…

Me: Do you think the experience of Nirvana is a mystical experience? It is an experience outside time and space. It is an experience is completely outside the normal experiences of the six senses. Is that mystical?

Them: [1] I don’t believe in Nirvana or Enlightenment as my goal in practice. I believe in chipping away delusion and developing compassion and forgiveness. [2] Maybe I go against the stream of the traditional Buddhists, but I like to see myself as an American Buddhist.

First, many mainstream Westerners hold onto a rigid view that the current orthodox views of science offers a complete picture of the world and of the human experience. I don’t think this is true. My first two academic degrees were in Mathematics and Physics and one of the best parts of my scientific training was that I learned the strengths and limitations of the scientific method. I don’t believe science explains everything. Perhaps someday science will advance to the stage where it can explain and predict the aspects of our lives that currently are considered spiritual, but it isn’t there yet.

The second issue is more subtle and, I hate to say it, something I missed. When I showed this paper to a friend of mine who has studied Orientalism, the first thing she said was that the statement “Maybe I go against the stream of the traditional Buddhists [e.g., Asian], but I like to see myself as an American Buddhist” was on the edge of being racist and at the very least showed a dismissive attitude towards Asian culture. I have to agree. At some level (probably unconscious) a belief in the superiority of mainstream Western culture helped form that statement. “Americans are too advanced to believe in the nonsense of mysticism, unlike the Asian practitioners.”  I realize it is impossible to know the intent of the speaker. I doubt this person meant harm, but from my multicultural studies here at the University of the West, and from my training in Buddhist Chaplaincy, I have learned this doesn’t matter. If we want to follow the Buddha’s ethics of non-harming we must be extremely mindful of the often unexamined biases we have about our own cultural superiority.

We also need to remember a very powerful philosophy, something mainstream Westerners call pragmatism (e.g., William James). “If it works, use it.” Westerners, of course, don’t own this concept. Before humanity discovered germs, we found that pouring alcohol into a wound reduced the number of people who died, so we kept pouring alcohol into wounds. Humanity found (using primitive statistics) that keeping sewage away from wells kept people from getting sick, so we kept sewage away from wells even though we didn’t know why this worked. If it worked, humanity used it, though often we didn’t have a scientific explanation.

The same holds true for the practice of Buddhism. If, as Dr. Grzegorz Polak says in his book, “Reexamining the Jhānas: Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Early Buddhist Soteriology”

It seems very possible that if one started reading the suttas without any previous knowledge on Buddhism, he would see the jhānas as the most important element of the Buddhist doctrine.

Then perhaps we should find someone who uses the jhānas and ask them how this practice helps them on the path. If we know people we trust who we believe have experienced Nibbāna, then maybe we should open our minds to the possibility that we can awaken, either partially or fully and do so in this very lifetime.

Because I believe so strongly that awakening is possible in this very life, when a respected teacher such as Stephen Batchelor says this, I’m deeply saddened:

I am a secular Buddhist. It has taken me years to fully “come out,” and I still feel a nagging tug of insecurity, a faint aura of betrayal in declaring myself in these terms. As a secular Buddhist my practice is concerned with responding as sincerely and urgently as possible to the suffering of life in this world, in this century (our saeculum) where we find ourselves now and future generations will find themselves later. Rather than attaining nirvana, I see the aim of Buddhist practice to be the moment-to-moment flourishing of human life within the ethical framework of the eightfold path here on earth. – Stephen Batchelor, “A Secular Buddhist,” Tricycle Magazine, Fall 2012, emphasis mine.

Because of firmly held cultural views about what types of human experience are acceptable (and because of the mistaken belief that striving for Nibbāna is incompatible with Engaged Buddhism and the path of the bodhisatta), Secular Buddhists such as Mr. Batchelor downplay Nibbāna. Since Batchelor is a widely respected teacher there will be those who will follow his teachings and believe they represent the total possibility of Buddhist practice. When I started practicing, one of the aspects of Western Buddhism that so excited me was the teaching that lay people as well as monks could awaken. This is not a teaching that has existed throughout the history of Buddhism. Using Theravāda Buddhism as an example, there appears to be a period in time, which lasted as long as perhaps a thousand years, when many Theravāda practitioners believed the world was so corrupt that no one, lay or monastic could awaken. For most of Buddhist history lay people were expected to work toward a better rebirth by collecting merit. It was not expected that they could or should try to awaken. It was the people of Burma, oppressed by colonialism, who realized that Theravāda Buddhism was dying in their country and something needed to change. They started teaching that people could awake, yes, even lay people. And thus begin the revival of Buddhist meditation and the revival of the belief in Nibbāna within the Theravāda tradition, a revival that arose independently in many other Buddhist traditions during that same era. It is my deepest hope that Convert Western Buddhism will not throw away the great gift given to us by those who practiced Buddhism before it came to the West, the gift of Nibbāna in this very life.

My thanks to my reviewers for their help improving this post. All opinions expressed and mistakes made in this post are my own.

On 4/19/13 I edited the post slightly to clarify a couple of points.

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9 thoughts on “The Nattering Nabobs of Nibbāna

  1. avantika1967 says:

    A thought-provoking piece, Buddhakaruna! I hear your frustration but hope that you are not too dismayed. As you know, the topic of nibbana can be a very thorny topic in Buddhist circles: How does one define nibbana? Is it, in fact, definable? Is it goal-worthy, or does making it a goal defeat the essence of it? It’s been so thorny that enlightenment/ nibbana is sometimes described as being beyond both samsara and (our concepts of) nibanna. I’ve heard that the one goal that is okay to have (most goals are worldly and only lead to more suffering) is the goal to attain enlightenment – not necessarily because it’s ‘attainable,’ but because having the goal is an excellent means of or method for getting ‘there.’ Perhaps there are goal-less paths as well, or paths with differently defined goals or unstated goals, and one of those happens to suit your friend.

    That being said, though Stephen Batchelor may be widely respected as a teacher in some circles, it is not the case in many others. Batchelor has been criticized for eliminating the most fundamental of the Buddha’s teachings and is known for cherry picking the theories that suit him. It has been suggested that his particular form of “Buddhism” is not Buddhism at all (just as some traditions view the tradition I claim to be a part of as not Buddhism either). Some say that anyone who refers to oneself as Buddhist – whether American, secular, Asian, etc. – is, by the very act of labeling oneself as such, not Buddhist. When the Buddha told his followers to trust their own experience, he was referring to his teachings, not to the proclamation of being Buddhist. People are certainly entitled to cherry pick. The question is, of course, whether doing so ‘qualifies’ one to refer to oneself as ‘Buddhist.’ There are many different ideas about what “makes someone a Buddhist,” and I’m sure many of us self-proclaimed Buddhists would disagree with what that means. Though an interesting and provocative issue, I’m not sure there’s an answer that would be satisfying (for long, anyway). I hope the sadness that this issue has evoked in you will lead you to a deeper understanding of what Buddhism (path with or without goal) means to you.

  2. Ted Meissner says:

    As avantika1967 says above, how are you defining nibbana? And I would like to add, how does one validate it, and what is the measure of what “true” Buddhism is? Theravada? Mahayana? Vajrayana? Buddhism can mean many things to many people — you’re calling one interpretation wrong, but that inevitably means you have one and only one that you think is right. What I would suggest that as the teachings and practices have changed as they encounter different cultural contexts, they are doing so here and now. The other kinds of engagements with Buddhism vary in their content, that has always been the case, and it’s the case today.

    Us secular types aren’t taking away from our rich traditions any more than chocolate bars take away from candy canes; we’re doing something different.

  3. If I live my life well, and follow the eight-fold path, nibbāna is the natural conclusion. I need not set a goal to attain something that comes inevitably with right and ethical living and growth. Of course living that life is far easier said than done… I am quite certain though, one does not achieve this by dangling a proverbial carrot in front of their nose.

  4. buddhakaruna says:

    Paul, Ted, Avantika. Thanks for making the time to comment. I’m busy studying but I hope I will have time to respond soon.

  5. Ted Meissner says:

    Thank you for posting, buddhakaruna, truly. This can be a difficult topic, but we can certainly approach it with a heart of inquiry, sharing, and friendliness.

  6. Ted Meissner says:

    p.s. — With your interest in Jhana and familiarity with Leigh, you may be interested in our interview I just posted yesterday:

  7. Ven. Andrew says:

    Very nice, thanks.

  8. This was a nicely written and beautiful piece. Very informative as well! Sathu

  9. buddhakaruna says:

    Thanks everyone. Thanks Ted for posting your interview with Leigh. He’s a great guy.

    I’ll respond to everyone’s comments in another post “Nattering Nabobs of Nibbana 2” 😉 The questions you all ask are deep and wise and I want to respond thoughtfully. Also, I’m down with a cold and buried in schoolwork and though I have an idea how I want to respond I want to pass it by someone wiser in the Dhamma than myself.

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